A distinction must be made between (1) the covariance of two random variables, which is a population parameter that can be seen as a property of the joint probability distribution , and (2) the sample covariance, which in addition to serving as a descriptor of the sample, also serves as an estimated value of the population parameter.
Correlation and Regression
Error propagation equation | The Forest of Brocéliande
statistics - Help with proof of expected value of gamma ...
Testing Multiple Linear Restrictions: the F-test | n3iT's Blog
Covariance Matrices, Covariance Structures, and Bears, Oh My!
Global Positioning System Overview
Properties of the OLS estimator
Covariance Related Keywords & Suggestions - Covariance ...
Relativistic Momentum and Energy
File:Example Structural equation model.svg - Wikipedia
Using Excel to Calculate and Graph Correlation Data ...
Golden Fibonacci Spiral Ratio Stock Vector - Image: 23330915